Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a condition characterized by high blood glucose resulting from the body’s inability to use that glucose efficiently. It is a chronic metabolic disorder as a result of failure in the formation of hormone insulin or its action or liberation from the pancreas which is the only hormone that helps the body to utilize glucose to produce energy. Untreated diabetes can lead to many serious medical problems such as damage to blood vessels and nerves which can result in blindness, kidney disease, nerve disease, limb amputations and cardiovascular disease. For a diabetic person it is suggested to have diet high in protein, rich in vitamins and minerals and medium in CHO and fat. A plan diet becomes a vital part of routine and when followed religiously can help to recover the health.
- Determine your ideal body weight according to your age & height and try to maintain it.
- Diabetics can eat any normal food except those containing sugar, glucose, jaggery or honey.
- Avoid heavy 2-3 large meals and instead divide your whole day food into 5-6 small meals with equal quantity of CHO and other nutrients.
- Fibre should be an important part of your diet as it helps in reducing the absorption of blood glucose from the gut.
- Avoid feast and fast as it imbalances your glucose level.
- Exercise should be a part of your daily life.
- Regularity of mealtimes is essential.
- In between meals try to include light snacks.
- Diabetics should always carry homemade light snacks and water with them while traveling.
- Moderate amount of food should be eaten avoiding heavy meals.
- You should be relaxed and ambience should be calm while having meals.
- Lemon water (no sugar)
- salad leaves
- clear soups
- all citrus fruits
Foods to be taken in prescribed amount
- All cereals
- milk and milk products
- nuts or dry fruits
Foods to be avoided
- Foods rich in starch- potato, colocasia, sweet potato, beetroot, yam, jackfruit, refined flour (maida or cornflour).
- All fats- butter, cream, ghee, fried foods
- Fruits with high sucrose- mango, sapota, banana, grapes, custard apple.
- All sweets- sugar, honey, jaggery, ice-creams, sweets, puddings, murabbas
- Alcoholic drinks and aerated soft drinks, sweetened juices & squashes.
- Bakery products like biscuits, namkeen, cakes, pastry, patties etc
Diet equation for calculation of calories intake
(66.47) + (13.75 * weight in kg) + (5.0 * height in cm) – (6.78 * Age in years)
(655.10) + (9.56 * weight in kg) + (1.85 * height in cm) – (4.68 * Age in years)
Sample menu according to Indian diet
Approx total calories – Energy 1600 Kcal, Protein 65gm, Carbohydrates 220 gm, Fats 35-38 gm
Energy 60 Kcal, Protein 1 gm, Fat 2.5gm, CHO 2.5gm
- Lemon water/plain water= 1 glass or Green tea/lemon tea=1 cup (without sugar) with cinnamon Along with Flaxseeds=1/2 tsp
Breakfast: (with a gap of 1 Hr)
Energy 240 Kcal, Protein 15gm, Fat 7.5 gm, CHO 50 gm
- Skimmed milk-1 cup (200 ml) with daliya/oats/wheat flakes (30 gm), (with anjeer 1-2) or One Missi chappati (without fat) with mint and coriander chutney or multi grain / brown bread (2-3 slices)
- Egg/Paneer (1 poached or boiled white part/25gm) or Veg snacks like oats poha/veg daliya/brown bread poha (1 quarter plate)
Mid morning: (With a gap of 2 hrs)
Energy 120 Kcal, Protein 7.5gm, Fat 1.5 gm, CHO 25 gm
- Lemon water/ Salted Butter milk/Veg juice (1 glass) or Citrus fruit (one in quantity) or sprouted chat=1 bowl (raw 25 gm dal)
Lunch: (with a gap of 2 hrs)
Energy 470 Kcal, Protein 18 gm, Fat 10 gm, CHO 75 gm
- Salad- 1 bowl
- Missi chappati (2)
- Cooked Vegetable (prefer green leafy veg) one bowl
- Skim milk curd/veg raita/cooked dal one bowl
Evening tea: (with a gap of 2 to 2.5 hrs)
Energy 150 Kcal, Protein 7.5 gm, Fat 5.5 gm, CHO 50 gm
- Tea/Green tea- 1 cup (without sugar)
- High fibre biscuits/multigrain biscuits (quantity 2) or Roasted Channa= 25gm or Sprouted Chat=25gm or wheat puff=25gm
Pre-dinner: (one hour before dinner)
Energy 75 Kcal, Protein 2 gm, Fat 1 gm, CHO 20gm
- Clear Soup/cold soup =1 bowl or Fruit Chat= 1 bowl or Veg crush=1 glass
Dinner: (2.5 to 3 hrs before bedtime)
Energy= 370 Kcal, Protein= 10.2 gm, Fat= 8 gm, CHO= 50 gm
- Salad (1 bowl)
- High fibre chappati (1or2)
- Cooked vegetable one bowl
- Skim milk curd/cooked dal one bowl or milk with wheat flakes one bowl (with anjeer 1-2) or Apple shake/strawberry shake one glass (with anjeer 1-2)
- Can be taken once in a week only and that too instead of dal or curd in your diet plan
* Roasted chicken or fish/Egg (white part)/ Paneer (100gm/1 piece/20gm)