Diet plan in high cholesterol

Introduction

Cardiovascular Disease is not a single disease but it includes conditions related to heart and accompanying blood vessels. This includes atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, disease of the arteries, arrhythmias bacterial endocarditis, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart defects, congestive heart failure and stroke. Cardiovascular Disease is a man made disorder due to rapid industrialization, modernization and socio-economic development which has brought about significant change in the lifestyle and dietary patterns in most of the world. Its main reason is the lack of “GOOD FAT” in the diet, which affects the functioning of the heart and blood vessels. It occurs more often among person’s suffering from obesity, hypertension, diabetes, high blood lipid, high blood cholesterol and smoking.

Dietary guidelines

  • Determine your ideal body weight and try to maintain it.
  • Have a well regulated diet which provides all the required nutrients. Low calories diet is prescribed to maintain energy balance.
  • The diet should be low in saturated fats, Trans fats, cholesterol, salt and added sugars.
  • Total fat intake should not exceed 20-30gm and having a combination of SFA; MUFA and PUFA should be 8-10%, 15% & 10% respectively of total fat intake.
  • Include fruits and vegetables as a main item of the diets as they are rich in antioxidants which reduce the free-radicals formed by risk factors of heart disease.
  • Exercise should be an integral part of your daily life.
  • Have plenty of water in between the meals.

Lifestyle modification

  • Coffee and tea should be taken in moderation. As excess amount of caffeine increases the heart rate.
  • Five serving of fruit and vegetables should be included in the diet as it provides antioxidants as well as fibre.
  • Regularity of mealtime should be maintained.
  • Don’t walk after the meal. At least for half an hour.
  • Foods giving empty calories should be avoided.

Foods allowed

  • High fibre foods like whole cereals, whole pulses, sprouts, all fruits and vegetables.
  • Low fat substitutes like skimmed milk and its products i.e. curd, paneer, lassi. The relatively low fat meats like chicken, fish, egg white.
  • Food rich in soluble fibers like flax-seeds, fenugreek seeds, guar gum, curry leaves etc.
  • Oils like olive oil, canola oil, soya bean oil, mustard oil, rice bran oil.
  • Seasonings and flavourings like elaichi, cinnamon, mint, coriander seeds, lemon, vinegar, tamarind, garlic, ginger etc

Foods avoided

  • Refined cereals like sooji, maida, sago, washed pulses.
  • Active and glandular meats like kidney, liver, heart, pork, bacon, mutton.
  • Whole milk and its products like cream, khoya, processed cheese.
  • Deep fried foods, chocolates, pastries, cakes with creams, sweets.
  • In case of sodium restriction- bakery products, canned foods, highly salted processed foods, pickles, papads etc.

Diet equation for calculation of calories intake

For males:
(66.47) + (13.75 * weight in kg) + (5.0 * height in cm) – (6.78 * Age in years)

For females:
(655.10) + (9.56 * weight in kg) + (1.85 * height in cm) – (4.68 * Age in years)

Sample menu according to Indian diet

Approx total calories:
Energy 1800 Kcal, PROTEIN 67 gm, Carbohydrates 300 gm, Fats 35gm

Early morning:

Energy 120 Kcal, Protein 3.5 gm, Fat 6.5gm, CHO 35gm

  1. Lemon water/plain water (1 glass) or Tea/Green tea/lemon tea (1 cup) with Soaked Almonds or walnut (5 to 6/1) along with flaxseeds (½ tsp)
Breakfast: (with the gap of 1 hr)

Energy 250Kcal, Protein 12gm, Fat 5gm, CHO 45gm

  1. Skimmed milk-1 cup (200 ml) with daliya/oats/wheat flakes or stuffed chappati 1 with skim milk curd (1 bowl) or Veg snacks like oats poha/veg daliya/Rice poha/Vermicelli/oats idli (1 quarter plate) or besan chilla/oats chilla/bran cheela (2 in quantity) with mint chutney or Multi grain bread/ Brown Bread (2 slice) with Egg White/ Paneer (1/25 gm)
Mid morning: (with the gap of 2 hrs)

Energy 90 Kcal, Protein 2gm, Fat 2.5gm, CHO 15gm

  1. Lemon water/Butter milk/Veg juice (1 glass) or Fruit (1)/fruit chat (1 bowl)
Lunch: (With the gap of 2 hrs)

Energy 470 Kcal, Protein 18gm, Fat 8gm, CHO 75gm

  1. Salad- 1 bowl
  2. High fibre chappati (1 to 2)
  3. Boiled Rice 1 bowl (raw 25 gm)
  4. Cooked Vegetable (1 bowl)
  5. Skim milk curd/cooked dal/Paneer veg/chicken/fish (1 bowl)
Evening tea: (with the gap of 2 ½ to 3 hrs)

Energy 150 Kcal, Protein 7.5gm, Fat 1.5gm, CHO 50gm

  1. Tea/Green tea (1 cup)
  2. Sweet biscuits (2 pieces) or Roasted Channa (25gm) or puffed rice/wheat (10gm) or sprouted chat (25 gm)
Pre-dinner: (1 to 1 ½ hr before dinner)

Energy 85 Kcal, Protein 2.5gm, Fat 0.5gm, CHO 18gm

  1. Clear Soup (1 bowl) or Fruit/veg crush (1 bowl)
Dinner: (3 hrs before bedtime)

Energy 370 Kcal, Protein 10gm, Fat 8gm, CHO 50gm

  1. Salad (1 bowl)
  2. High fibre chappati (1or2)
  3. Cooked vegetable (1 bowl)
  4. Skim milk curd/cooked dal (1 bowl)
Post dinner: (1 hr before bedtime)

Energy 130 Kcal, Protein 5.5gm, Fat 5.25gm, CHO 15gm

  1. Skimmed milk with dates or anjeer (1 cup)
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