Diet rich in antioxidants

Introduction

Antioxidants are the chemical substances which prevent body from free radical damage. They neutralize the effect of oxidation which is caused by these free radicals. As free radicals affect each and every part of the body and they are enemy which gets through the defence system and damage lipids, proteins, cell walls, vessel walls and even the DNA nucleus of the cell. These damaged lipids and proteins further leads to rigid cell membranes, oxidized cholesterol and often leads to the hardening of the arteries. And poorly repaired DNA chains lead to cell mutation causing cancer and aging.

Antioxidants limit and prevent the free radical damage to the DNA nucleus of the cell and provide the proper nutrients needed for the body to repair any damage that has already occurred. There are many micronutrients that act as antioxidants, some of them are:

  • Tocopherols(vitamin E)
  • Carotenoids (beta carotene)
  • Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
  • Glutathione
  • Lipoic acid
  • Uric acid
  • Ubiquinol(coenzyme Q)
  • Zinc
  • Selenium

They all protect from Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis etc

Foods rich in antioxidants

  • Allium sulphur compounds- leeks, onions, garlic
  • Anthocyanins- eggplant, grapes, berries
  • Beta carotenes- pumpkin, mangoes, apricots, carrots, spinach, parsley
  • Catechins- red wine, green tea
  • Copper- seafood, lean meat, milk, nuts, legumes
  • Cryptoxanthin- red peppers, pumpkin, mangoes
  • Flavonoids- tea, green tea, red wine, citrus fruits, onion, grapes

Diet equation for calculation of calories intake

For males:
(66.47) + (13.75 * weight in kg) + (5.0 * height in cm) – (6.78 * Age in years)

For females:
(655.10) + (9.56 * weight in kg) + (1.85 * height in cm) – (4.68 * Age in years)

Sample menu according to Indian diet

Approx total calories:
Energy 1800 Kcal, Protein 67 gm, Carbohydrates 290 gm, Fats 38gm

Early morning:

Energy 120 Kcal, Protein 3.5gm, Fat 6.5gm, CHO 35gm

  1. Green tea/ Lemon tea/tea (1 cup) with soaked almonds/walnuts (5 to 6/1)
Breakfast: (with a gap of 1 hr)

Energy 250Kcal, Protein 12gm, Fat 5gm, CHO 45gm

  1. Milk 1 cup (200 ml) with Veg sandwich 1 to 2 piece (with egg or paneer) or veg poha/ fried idle/ nutri poha/ rice poha ( with parsley) 1 quarter plate or milk with oats/ daliya/ wheat flakes with fruit (1 bowl)
Mid Morning: (with a gap of 2 hrs)

Energy 90 Kcal, Protein 2gm, Fat 0.5gm, CHO 15gm

  1. Fruits/ mix fruit chaat (including berries or grapes) - (1 bowl) or fresh fruit juice/ fruit punch with green tea- (1 glass) or fresh veg juice/ veg crush- (1 glass)
Lunch: (with a gap of 2 hrs)

Energy 470 Kcal, Protein 18gm, Fat 10gm, CHO 75gm

  1. Salad- (1 bowl)
  2. Brown rice/ red rice- (1 bowl)
  3. Chappati- 1 to 2
  4. Cooked Vegetable- (1 bowl)
  5. Curd/ Veg raita/ cooked dal/ nutri veg/ fish curry (with coriander or parsley chopped)- 1 bowl
Evening: (with a gap of 2 to 2 ½ hr)

Energy 150 Kcal, Protein 7.5gm, Fat 1.5gm, CHO 50gm

  1. Tea/ green tea/ lemon tea-(1 cup)
  2. With biscuits- 1 to 2 pieces or Veg/fruit sandwich- 1piece or wheat /rice puff veg chat- 1 small bowl or sprouted chat- 1 bowl
Pre dinner: (1 to 1 ½ hr before dinner)

Energy 85 Kcal, Protein 2.5gm, Fat 0.5gm, CHO 18gm

  1. Coconut water- 1 glass or Fruit/ veg salad- 1 bowl or Fruit/ veg crush- 1 glass or Soups– 1 bowl
Dinner: (3 hr before bedtime)

Energy 370 Kcal, Protein 10gm, Fat 8gm, CHO 50gm

  1. Salad- 1 bowl
  2. Chappati- 1 to 2 in quantity
  3. Cooked vegetable- 1 bowl
  4. Cooked dal/veg raita- 1 bowl
  5. Mint or coriander relish
Post dinner: (1 hr before bedtime)

Energy 130 Kcal, Protein 5.5gm, Fat 5.25gm, CHO 15gm

  1. Skimmed milk with dates or anjeer-1 cup
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